Finally, a notable new area of study, cultural and educational policy and its social consequences has been opened up. Much of it concerns the early and mid-twenties alone but some of the main works also look at the 'cultural revolution' of 1928-31, which finally silenced the old intelligentsia and replaced it with a new, more narrowly educated white-collar intelligentsia. The contributors to Cultural Revolution in Russia 1928-1931 , edited by Sheila Fitzpatrick, examine this process in a wide variety of areas. The effects of these policies on the historical profession in the Soviet Union have been carefully scrutinised by John Barber in Soviet Historians in Crisis (Macmillan, 1981) and George Enteen in The Soviet Scholar-Bureaucrat: . Pokrovskii and the Society of Marxist Historians (Penn. State University Press, 1979). Also covered in detail is the technical intelligentsia in Kendall Bailes Technology and Society under Lenin and Stalin and N. Lampert The Technical Intelligentsia in the USSR 1928-1935 (Macmillan, 1979). By and large the main thrust of these works is to show that ideological uniformity was not simply created from above but found active collaborators from below who became an essential element in the Stalinist power structure.
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