The term “shame” probably comes from the Proto-Indo-European word * kem-, meaning “to cover”. It is a quality which may regulate social relationships and emotions. We can feel ashamed due to some perceived indignity, alienation, defeat, or violation. Shame is also closely tied to guilt, which is often seen as a personal moral experience, while shame is a public experience of being judged by others. Shame may be experienced in either a negative, oppressive form, or as producing a positive, desirable quality. In the Greek, there is, for example, aiskhyne, meaning “disgrace” and “dishonour”, and aidos, meaning “modesty” and “bashfulness” 4 . In the West, and elaborated on in the writings of thinkers like Freud and Nietzsche, shame is seen as a form of repression – a negative lower-type primitive emotion that hinders the freedom of the individual. It makes us vulnerable and controls our relationships. It can also make us lie and hurt others. Honour killing is one example of the terrible consequences of shame. But as with aberu , shame can also be a force for good. It connects us to the community and builds kinship and intersubjectivity, making us feel responsible for others. It can be a defense mechanism against inappropriate behaviors and purely selfish impulses.