Curcumin and Ashwagandha are ingredients from traditional Indian medicine with demonstrated safety of use. Curcumin is an extract of turmeric (`Haldi’), which is a common ingredient in Indian cooking. It has antitumor, antioxidant, antinflammatory activity with practically no pharmacological toxicity. Similarly Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) is a plant found in abundance all over India. It has been used in several Ayurvedic preparations for arthritis. It is also known as the “Indian Ginseng” due to its anti-oxidant and cell protection properties. It has been shown to be active in several tumor cell lines including the lung, breast, and colon. In animal experiments it has been shown to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents like Paclitaxel. Toxicity studies have shown it to be safe over prolonged period of administration. Both these substances seem to show promise in laboratory and animal studies of cancer. A scientific study is required to find out if any of them have the potential of being useful as adjuvant in osteosarcoma. This study is designed as a preliminary proof of concept study to determine whether there is any significant activity of these substances in osteosarcoma. Recruitment is on.
In an effort to explain the mechanism and conditions that favoured extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles in 2014, Karthik et al. undertook the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) ions by using Streptomyces sp. LK-3. This resulted in the efficient formation of Ag nanoparticles [ 145 ]. It is known that the nitrate reductase enzyme is generally involved in the cellular nitrogen cycle and is responsible for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite [ 151 ]. Their study indicated that Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH-) dependent nitrate reductase enzyme, was indeed responsible for the reduction of Ag ions to metallic Ag via an electron transfer mechanism, and the subsequent formation of stabilized Ag nanoparticles. A similar nitrate reductase enzyme mechanism is seen in the reduction of Au ions from aqueous solutions containing gold chloride (AuCl 4 − ) ions [ 152 ]. During the electron transfer from NADH by NADH-dependent reductase, each Au ion receives an electron and it reduces to Au 0 and subsequently forms stabilized Au nanoparticles [ 153 , 154 ]. Importantly, effective stabilization is necessary to prevent agglomeration due to the high-surface energy and protect the properties of the synthesized nanoparticle. Interestingly, biologically synthesized nanoparticles tend to have higher antimicrobial activity when compared with traditionally synthesized nanoparticles. The higher antimicrobial activity is believed to be the result of the action of synergistic proteins involved in capping and stabilizing the nanoparticles [ 155 ].