From the 1830's - 1876 the Ottoman Empire was ruled by a man name Tanzimat. Tanzimat used the millet system to run his empire. This meant that each religious group was able to run their own affairs. Through this system the Ottoman Empire began moving towards a democracy as well as everyone being considered equal. In 1876 Hamid took over as sultan. Hamid didn't agree with Tanzimat's reforms. Unlike Tanzimat, Hamid wanted to be seen as a Muslim religious leader and so he un-did the reforms that Tanzimat had established and began to persecute non - Muslims. Just five years before World War I began, a group known as the . (Committee of Union and Progress) or Young Turks overthrew Hamid and took over the Ottoman Empire. The Young Turks had different ideas from that of Hamid, one of them being that they wanted a country of all Turkish people. Their slogan became "Turkey for the Turks" and this slogan showed their Turkish nationalism.
An essential feature of religious experience across many cultures is the intuitive feeling of God's presence. More than any rituals or doctrines, it is this experience that anchors religious faith, yet it has been largely ignored in the scientific literature on religion.
"... [Dr. Wathey's] book delves into the biological origins of this compelling feeling, attributing it to innate neural circuitry that evolved to promote the mother-child bond...[He] argues that evolution has programmed the infant brain to expect the presence of a loving being who responds to the child's needs. As the infant grows into adulthood, this innate feeling is eventually transferred to the realm of religion, where it is reactivated through the symbols, imagery, and rituals of worship. The author interprets our various conceptions of God in biological terms as illusory supernormal stimuli that fill an emotional and cognitive vacuum left over from infancy.
These insights shed new light on some of the most vexing puzzles of religion, like:
Mao Zedong rose to power in China as the leader of a new Chinese Communist Party which defeated the Nationalist Party for power of China. Known for its large amount of deaths, an estimation of 50 million to 70 million people were killed during the years of Mao's ruling. The Cultural Revolution was a huge factor that contributed to these deaths as Mao and his government aimed to rid old customs, old habits, old ideas and old culture. The rich were killed and stripped of their wealth, temples and ancient traditions were burnt and political leaders who opposed communism were eradicated. It was a time of turmoil.